Do Dogs Get Colds?

Abe, our Labrador Retriever, is a wonderful soul. Though he loves all of the seasons, winter seems to be his favorite. On a winter’s day, he could spend hours running, jumping and playing in the snow. The joy on his face is clearly evident in this photograph that was used in an article on Labrador Training HQ.

Migratory Birds Are Worth Protecting

In our backyard, Baltimore orioles have a choice of oranges and grape jelly. Keeping their feeders full is a small price to pay for the delight in hearing their chitter and gasping at their orange plumage all summer long.

George Fenwick (President of the American Bird Conservancy) and John W. Fitzpatrick (Director of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology) wrote a wonderful article explaining why migratory birds are worth protecting. The article was is response to Allysia Finley’s (Wall Street Journal) article about how birds are a drag to our economy. Read George Fenwick and John W. Fitzpatrick’s article about the importance of birds to our environment at the American Bird Conservancy.

Assembly Required

The raven, framed by a full moon, shrieks into the moonlit night while emitting a mysterious red glow from its eye.

As the Rolling Stones song goes “You can’t always get what you want but if you try, sometimes well, you might find you get what you need.” This was certainly the case with the Raven’s Eye and the challenges that I faced; alignment of the bird and moon, a full moon and a bird on a branch. Once it became obvious to me that coordinating these events was going to be at best difficult, I decided to take a different approached and manually create my vision.

Both the moon and bird were taken at different times, the moon at night and the bird during the day. The moon, is actually a scan of a picture that I took several years ago. The bird is one of many that I have taken positioned on a white background. The result is a composite image that met my vision of a silhouetted bird in a glowing moon. The steps that I took to create the image along with the Photoshop layers are detailed below.

Moon
The moon was imported as a smart object for two reasons. A smart object allows for nondestructive multiple edits to an image without reducing the overall quality of that image. Since the size of moon needed to be increased and also blurred, a Photoshop smart object was the best way to manipulate the image.

Moon Adjustment
The empty sky surrounding the moon required darkening. A luminosity mask on a curves adjustment with a multiply blend mode darkened the sky properly. The multiply blend mode multiplies the pixels together thus the result are darkened pixels.

Raven
The raven also had to be adjusted, thus it also was imported as a smart object. Once sized correctly in comparison to the moon, the transition of the branch from moon and sky had to be adjusted. The branch was extended both sides of the raven which provided a smooth transition from the moon into the night sky. Once the branch was extended, the three layers where merged into a single layer. The white background of the raven image was eliminated with the darken blend mode. This blend mode compares the two layers and only displays the darker of the pixels, thus the white background is completely eliminated.

Adjust Raven
In order to create the silhouette, two types of clipping mask adjustments were applied to only the raven layer. A clipping mask applies the adjustment to the the pixel layer directly beneath that layer without impacting any other layers. First, a black and white clipping mask adjustment was applied to eliminate any color remnants made by the following levels adjustment. Then the noted levels clipping mask adjustment was added and manipulated to turn the raven into a black silhouette.

General Cleanup
At this point the image was coming together but the branch required some touch up. On a separate layer, the areas that required darkening were painted black.

Raven’s Eye
A curves adjustment with the multiply blend mode was use to create the mysterious aura of the raven’s eye. The entire adjustment was masked except for the eye.

Final Adjustments
After review, the sky appear light so it was slightly darkened. A curves adjustment layer masking the moon was created with a multiple blend mode. This adjustment was all it took to slightly darken the sky and leave the moon untouched.

You can’t always get what you want but if you try sometimes you might create what you need as is the case with The Raven’s Eye.

Luminance Adjustments

Luminance is the intensity of light emitted from a area. The darkest luminance levels are known as the shadows, the brightest luminance levels are known as the highlights and then the luminance levels in between are known as midtones.

There are three automatic, and destructive, luminance adjustments, Auto tone, Auto Color and Auto Contrast.

    Auto Tone
    The Auto Tone command makes the darkest pixels black and the brightest pixels white on a channel by channel basis, affecting each channel independently. This means the color cast of the image is changed. Thus if an image contains a color cast it can be removed.

    Auto Constrast
    The Auto Contrast command makes darkest pixels black and the brightest pixels white on a composite basis. So in other words, all three channels are affected in exactly the same way. That means darker shadows and brighter highlights, but the natural color cast of the image is not affected.

    Auto Color
    The Auto Color command makes darkest pixels black and the brightest pixels white, once again on a channel by channel basis, just as with the Auto Tone command, but it’s also neutralizing the midtones. This is a command that adjusts the midtones in order to neutralize them.

A fourth method to adjust luminance, also destructive, is the Brightness/Contrast Adjustment. But the nice thing about this adjustment is that it’s incapable of clipping luminance levels; it can’t take big shadow regions and make them black or big highlight regions and make them white.

    Brightness/Contrast
    This static adjustment has both sliders and and an auto button in its dialog box. The Auto button evaluates not only the shadows and the highlights, as with the Auto Tone and Auto Contrast commands, but it’s also evaluates the midtones, the way the Auto Color command does. The command does it on a composite basis, as a result there is no chance of a color cast being introduced.
    There is method to use the Brightness/Contrast as a dynamic, non-destructive adjustment layer. At the bottom of the layers panel click the Create New adjustment Layer panel. Select Brightness/Contrast, this will create a Brightness/Contrast Adjustment Layer. The same functionally exists as the static Brightness/Contrast adjustment described above but it makes the changes on an adjustment layer and thus is non-destructive.

Cropping Tips, Tricks and Shortcuts

Tips and Tricks 

  • + “H” – Hide the crop boundary box. The crop tool is still active and the image still can be cropped with out the distraction of the crop boundary box.

Shortcuts

  • “C” – Selects the Crop tool
  • “O” – Cycles through the different View overlays
  • “R” – Displays the Crop Image Size & Resolution dialog. A crop adjustment must be to the Crop marquee before tapping the “R” key, otherwise tapping the “R’ key will select the Rotate View tool.
  • “H” – Hides the image area that is beyond (outside of) the Crop marquee.
  • “X” – Exchanges the Crop marquee from horizontal to vertical and vice versa.
  • “P” – Enables “Classic Mode” where the Crop marquee behaves as in previous versions: you move the Crop marquee, not the image under the Crop marquee. Note: you must make an adjustment to the Crop marquee before tapping the “P” key, otherwise tapping the “P’ key will select the Pen tool.
  • “Escape” – Cancels the crop (you are no longer in the modal crop session).

Layer Tips, Tricks and Shortcuts

Tips and Tricks
Rename Multiple Layers

  • Double-clicking on a layer name and rename
  • Press the Tab key to advance to the next layer
  • Rename layer
  • Press the Tab key continue to next layer or Press Enter to end

Load Layer as selection

  • Hover cursor over the Layer thumbnail (note the little hand with the pointing finger)
  • Press and hold the Command (note the little marquee next to the cursor)
  • Command and click on that layer thumbnail, the selection outline appears

Two Methods to Copy a Layer

  • 1. Drag layer to Create New Layer Icon at the bottom of the layers panel
  • 2. Press the Command and “J” key on the active layer.
  • Note about copying a layer

  • If a selection is active then that selected portion of the layer will be copied.

Copy an Image to a Layer in Another Image

  • On the source image Press Layer->Duplicate Layer
  • In the dialog box select the destination image from the drop down menu
  • Click OK and switch to the destination image

Two Methods to Create Layer Clipping Masks

  • 1. Active the desired layer to be clipped, choose Layers->Create Clipping Mask
  • 2. Hold the Option key and click on the line between the layers

Shortcuts

  • New layer – press Shift Command and the “N” key
  • New layer using a selection – Press Command and the “J” key
  • Group layers – press Command and the “G” key, to ungroup them press Shift Command and the “G” key.
  • Merge all layers – press Command and the “E” key
  • Merge all visible layers, press Shift Command and the “E” key

Shortcuts for Selecting Layers

  • Select the layer below the current layer, press Option and the “[” key
  • Select the layer below the current layer, press Option and the “]” key
  • Select the top layer in your Layers panel, press Option and the “.” key
  • Select the top layer in your Layers panel, press Option and the “,” key
  • Select all the layers between the currently active layer and the top layer, press Option Shift and the “.” key
  • Select all the layers between the currently active layer and the bottom layer, press Option Shift and the “,” key
  • Select every layer except the locked Background layer press Command Option and the “A” key

Shortcuts for Moving Layers

  • Bring to the Front: To move the current layer to the top of the layer stack, press Shift Command and the “]” key
  • Send To Back: To move it to the bottom of the layer stack, press Shift Command and the “[” key
  • Bring Forward: To move the current layer up one slot in your layer stack Command and the “]” key
  • .

  • Send Backward: To move it down one slot, press Command and the “[” key
  • Screen Modes

    This post details the how to control the three different screen modes in Photoshop.

    Screen Modes

    • Standard Screen Mode
    • Full Screen Mode with Menu Bar
    • Full Screen Mode

    There are two methods to change the screen modes. The first is by pressing Change Screen Mode Icon at the bottom of the toolbox and selecting the screen mode of choice. The other method is by pressing the “F” key. The “F” key will cycle through the three different screen modes.

    Screen Modes Actions

    • Press the command + ~ key to cycle through the images, when multiple tabs are open.
    • Press the Tab key to hide everything except the image window. Press again to view.
    • Press the Shift and Tab key to hide the right-side panels. Press again to view

    Full Screen Modes Actions

    • Press the Tab key to bring back the interface panels
    • Press the Shift and Tab Key to bring back the right side panel
    • Hover of the left-hand side of the screen to view the toolbox
    • Hover of the right-hand side of the screen to view the panels

    Zoom and Pan

    This post details the methods to navigate an image in Photoshop, zoom and panning. Three methods to zoom (incremental, continuous, custom) and the methods to pan are detailed separately. While they are detail below, two commands to note follow.

    • Command and 0 keys fits the image to the screen.
    • Command and 1 key zooms the image to 100%.

    Incremental Zoom
    To zoom on the central portion of a image.

    • Command and + keys zooms in on an image
    • Command and – keys zooms out of an image

    To zoom on a specific area of an image.

    • Zoom in, place cursor on the desired area, hold the “Z” key, click the mouse
    • Zoom out, place cursor on the desired area, hold the “Z” and option key, click the mouse

    Holding the command and spacebar simultaneously will accomplish the same thing as holding the “Z” key (zoom in). Add the option key to the above and this accomplishes the “Z” and option keys (zoom out).

    Continuous Zoom
    To zoom on the central portion of a image.

    • Zoom in, hold the option key and move your finger up.
    • Zoom out, hold the option key and move your finger down.

    To zoom on a specific area of an image.

    • Zoom in, place cursor on the desired area, hold the “Z” key, click and hold the mouse
    • Zoom out, place cursor on the desired area, hold the “Z” and option key, click and hold the mouse

    A final method to quickly zoom
    If the Scrubby Zoom is checked then hold the “Z” key and drag to the right and left to zoom in and out of the image. If the Scrubby Zoom is not checked then when the mouse is moved a selection box will display on the area to be zoomed.

    Custom Zoom
    The custom zoom value in the lower-left corner of the image window can be used in zoom in and out of the image.
    Method 1

    • Click the custom zoom value to active the box.
    • Then press the up/down arrow keys to increase decrease the zoom.
    • Press enter to activate the zoom

    Method 2 – Leave the Custom Value Box active for more precise zoom control

    • Click the custom zoom value to active the box.
    • Then press the up/down arrow keys to increase decrease the zoom.
    • Press enter and shift to activate the zoom
    • If necessary change the zoom value by entering a value pressing the arrow keys

    Method 3 – Preview zooms on the fly

    • Click the custom zoom value to active the box, keeping the cursor in the box
    • Hold the command key
    • Press and hold the hold, moving it right and left to zoom in and out

    Scroll and Pan

  • Drag with two fingers the mouse to scroll the image right, left, up and down
  • Select the hand tool and pan the image.
  • Hold the spacebar (which activates the hand tool) and pan the image
  • Re-center the view
      • Press and hold the “H” key
      • Click and hold the mouse
      • Move the rectangle to the desired location and release to re-center.
  • In “2-up” view, hold the shift and spacebar to pan both images simultaneously
  • Selection – Extracting & Refining Hair

    The following is a method improve the extract of hair and to keep all of the hair of a selection intact. First, follow the steps in the post Quick Selection Tools to make the initial selection. When in the Refine Edge dialog, pay special attention to the hair using the Refine Radius Tool. Once a satisfactory selection has been created, the next step is to actually refine the hair. The following methods enhance the hair against a particular background. These methods can be used together or separately depending on the requirements of the selection.

      General Rules

      • Light Hair Bright Background use Inner Glow – Blend Mode Screen
      • Dark Hair Dark Background use Inner Glow – Blend Mode Multiply
      • Otherwise Inner Glow is not typically needed as the remnants from original are hidden within the background

      Method #1
      Inner Glow Layer Style

      • Click Layer Style Icon (fx) and choose Inner Glow
      • Click eyedropper to color closest to hair
      • Change Blend Mode to Screen for light hair or Multiply for dark hair
      • Adjust size and opacity in the effects dialog depending on the requirement
      • Click OK
      • The inner glow effect will be applied to the entire selection. If the inner glow is to be only applied to the hair, take the following steps.

      • Click Layer ->Layer Style ->Create Layer
      • Add a mask and paint away any parts of the inner glow that should be hidden.

      Method #2
      Dodge and burn the hair

      • Select the Dodge or Burn tool
      • Set range to midtones
      • Light hair dodge
      • Dark hair burn
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    Selection – Quick Selection Tool (Part 2)

    Adjustment

    Per the previous post, typically a layer mask has been added to the layer. The layer mask only displays the parts of the image that where selected. There are several methods to enhance and refine that selection and layer mask. These methods are described below.

    To add a new white layer below the selected layer, command click on the layer icon in the layers window. The from the menu bar select Edit ->Fill and choose White. Click OK and the new layer will be filled with white, this the image will have a white background.

    • Using the brush tools paint out (black)/paint in (white) any missing parts of the selection.
    • To remove and fringe around the selection use brush but change the brush mode to Overlay
    • Remove Fringe
      • Command click on the layer mask to load selection around the subject
      • Click on the thumbnail, then press command J to duplicate (This creates the separate layer without the background)
      • Click the eye to hide the original layer
      • The from the menu bar select Layer ->Matting -> Defringe enter width of 1
      • Command Z to see the difference
      • If Necessary undo and increase the width
    • Refine Mask
      • Click the Mask
      • Click Properties Panel to open
      • Click Mask Edge. This opens the Refine Mask Panel, Refine Mask similar to Refine Edge
      • Feather to soften the edges of the mask
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